Maria felix memes

Maria felix memes DEFAULT

Downfall (2004 film)

2004 German-language historical war drama film

Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a 2004 German-language historicalwardrama film directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel from a screenplay by its producer, Bernd Eichinger. It is set during the Battle of Berlin in World War II, when Nazi Germany is on the verge of defeat, and depicts the final days of Adolf Hitler (portrayed by Bruno Ganz). The cast includes Alexandra Maria Lara, Corinna Harfouch, Ulrich Matthes, Juliane Köhler, Heino Ferch, Christian Berkel, Alexander Held, Matthias Habich, and Thomas Kretschmann. The film is a German-Austrian-Italian co-production.

Principal photography took place from September to November 2003, on location in Berlin, Munich, and in Saint Petersburg, Russia. As the film is set in and around the Führerbunker, Hirschbiegel used eyewitness accounts, survivors' memoirs, and other historical sources during production to reconstruct the look and atmosphere of 1940s Berlin. The screenplay was based on the books Inside Hitler's Bunker by historian Joachim Fest and Until the Final Hour by Traudl Junge, one of Hitler's secretaries, among other accounts of the period.

The film premiered at the Toronto Film Festival on 14 September 2004. It was controversial with audiences for showing the human side of Hitler and its portrayal of members of the Third Reich. It later received a wide theatrical release in Germany under its production company Constantin Film. The film grossed over $92 million and received favourable reviews from critics, particularly for Ganz's performance as Adolf Hitler and Eichinger's screenplay. Downfall was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 77th Academy Awards.

A notable scene in the film in which Hitler learns that his commands were disobeyed spawned an Internet meme that subtitle Hitler and the other characters so they are enraged about modern-day issues and popular culture. These memes spread on the internet, especially on YouTube.

Plot[edit]

In November 1942, at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia, Fuhrer of Nazi GermanyAdolf Hitler invites a number of young women to interview for the position of his personal secretary. Traudl Junge is overjoyed when he chooses her. Three years later, the Red Army has pushed Germany's forces back and surrounded Berlin. On Hitler's 56th birthday, the Red Army begins shelling Berlin's city centre. Reichsführer-SSHeinrich Himmler tries to persuade Hitler to leave Berlin, but Hitler refuses. Himmler leaves to negotiate terms with the Western Allies in secret. Later, Himmler's adjutant Hermann Fegelein also attempts to persuade Hitler to flee, but Hitler insists that he will win or die in Berlin. Dr. Ernst-Günther Schenck is ordered to leave Berlin per Operation Clausewitz, though he persuades an SS general to let him stay in Berlin to treat the injured. In the streets, Hitler Youthchild soldier Peter Kranz's father approaches his son's unit and tries to persuade him to leave. Peter, who destroyed two enemy tanks and will soon be awarded a medal by Hitler, calls his father a coward and runs away.

At a meeting in the Führerbunker, Hitler forbids the overwhelmed 9th Army from retreating, instead ordering SS commander Felix Steiner's units to mount a counter-attack. The generals find the orders impossible and irrational. Above ground, Hitler awards Peter his medal, hailing Peter as braver than his generals. In his office, Hitler talks to Minister of ArmamentsAlbert Speer about his scorched earth policy. Speer is concerned about the destruction of Germany's infrastructure, but Hitler believes the German people left behind are weak and thus deserve death. Meanwhile, Hitler's companion Eva Braun holds a party in the Reich Chancellery. However, her brother-in-law, Fegelein tries to persuade Eva to leave Berlin with Hitler, but she dismisses him. Artillery fire eventually breaks up the party. On the battlefield, General Helmuth Weidling is informed he will be executed for allegedly ordering a retreat. Weidling comes to the Führerbunker to clear himself of his charges. His action impresses Hitler, who promotes him to oversee all of Berlin's defences. At another meeting, Hitler learns Steiner did not attack because his unit lacked sufficient force. Hitler becomes enraged at what he sees as an act of betrayal and launches into a furious tirade, shouting that everyone has failed him and denouncing his generals as cowards and traitors. He finally acknowledges that the war is lost, but that he would rather commit suicide than leave Berlin. Schenck witnesses old men being executed by German military police for supposedly refusing to take part in the fighting. Hitler receives a message from Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring, requesting state leadership. Hitler declares Göring a traitor, ordering his dismissal from all posts and his arrest. Speer makes a final visit to the Führerbunker, and admits to Hitler that he has defied his orders to destroy Germany's infrastructure. Hitler, however, does not punish Speer, who decides to leave Berlin. Peter returns to find his unit dead and runs back to his parents. Hitler continues to imagine fantastic ways for Germany to turn the tide. At dinner, Hitler learns of Himmler's secret negotiations. Hearing that one of his most loyal followers has abandoned him sends him into another rage, and he quickly orders Himmler's execution. He also finds out that Fegelein has deserted his post, having him executed despite Eva's pleas. SS physician Ernst-Robert Grawitz asks Hitler's permission to evacuate for fear of Allied reprisal. Hitler refuses, leading Grawitz to kill himself and his family. The Soviets continue their advance, Berlin's supplies run low, and German morale plummets. Hitler hopes that the 12th Army, led by Walther Wenck, will save Berlin. After midnight, Hitler dictates his last will and testament to Junge, before officially marrying Eva. The following morning, Hitler learns that the 12th Army is unable to relieve Berlin. Refusing surrender, Hitler plans his death. He administers poison to his dog Blondi, bids farewell to the bunker staff, and commits suicide with Eva. The two are cremated in the Chancellery garden.

Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels assumes the Chancellorship. General Hans Krebs fails to negotiate a conditional surrender with Soviet General Vasily Chuikov. Goebbels declares that Germany will not surrender as long as he is alive. Goebbels' wife Magda poisons her six children with cyanide, before committing suicide with Goebbels; Weidling announces unconditional surrender of German forces in Berlin afterwards. Many government and military officials, including Krebs commit suicide after learning of Germany's defeat. Peter discovers his parents were executed. Junge leaves the bunker and tries to flee the city; Peter joins her as she sneaks through a group of Soviet soldiers before the two find a bicycle and leave Berlin.

Cast[edit]

Nazi Party (NSDAP)[edit]

Wehrmacht (armed forces)[edit]

Schutzstaffel (SS)[edit]

Additional cast members in smaller roles include Alexander Slastin as Soviet Colonel generalVasily Chuikov, Elena Dreyden as Inge Dombrowski, Norbert Heckner as Walter Wagner, Silke Nikowski as Frau Grawitz, Leopold von Buttlar as Sohn Grawitz, Veit Stübner as Tellermann, Boris Schwarzmann as Matvey Blanter, Vsevolod Tsurilo as Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky, Vasily Reutov as Weidling's chief of staff Theodor von Dufving. The Goebbels children are portrayed by Alina Sokar (Helga), Charlotte Stoiber (Hilda), Gregory Borlein (Helmut), Julia Bauer (Hedda), Laura Borlein (Holde), and Amelie Menges (Heide).

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Producer and screenwriter Bernd Eichinger wanted to make a film about Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party for twenty years but was, at first, discouraged after its enormity prevented him from doing so.[6] Eichinger was inspired to begin the filmmaking process after reading Inside Hitler's Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich (2002) by historian Joachim Fest.[7][8][6] Eichinger also based the film on the memoirs of Traudl Junge, one of Hitler's secretaries, called Until the Final Hour: Hitler's Last Secretary (2002).[9] When writing the screenplay, he used the books Inside the Third Reich (1969), by Albert Speer,[11] one of the highest-ranking Nazi officials to survive both the war and the Nuremberg trials; Hitler's Last Days: An Eye-Witness Account (1973), by Gerhard Boldt;[12]Das Notlazarett unter der Reichskanzlei: Ein Arzt erlebt Hitlers Ende in Berlin (1995) by Ernst-Günther Schenck; and Soldat: Reflections of a German Soldier, 1936–1949 (1992) by Siegfried Knappe as references.

After completing the script for the film, Eichinger presented it to director Oliver Hirschbiegel. Though he was interested in exploring how the people of Germany "could have plumbed such depths", as a German, Hirschbiegel hesitated to take it as he "reacted to the idea of Nazism as a taboo". Hirschbiegel eventually agreed to helm the project.[14]

Casting[edit]

When Bruno Ganz was offered the role of Hitler, he was reluctant to accept the part, and many of his friends advised against accepting it,[4][16] but he believed that the subject had "a fascinating side", and ultimately agreed to take the role.[15] Ganz conducted four months of research and studied a recording of Hitler in private conversation with Finnish Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim in order to properly mimic Hitler's conversational voice and Austrian dialect. Ganz came to the conclusion that Hitler had Parkinson's disease, noting his observation of Hitler's shaky body movements present in the newsreel Die Deutsche Wochenschau, and decided to visit a hospital to study patients with the disease.[15] Ganz auditioned in the casting studio with makeup for half an hour and tested his voice for Hirschbiegel who was convinced by his performance.[4][17]

Alexandra Maria Lara was cast as Traudl Junge; she was given Junge's book Until the Final Hour (2002), which she called her "personal treasure", to read during filming. Before she was cast, she had seen André Heller's documentary film Im toten Winkel which impressed her and influenced her perspective on Junge.[18][19]

Filming and design[edit]

Principal photography lasted twelve weeks from September to November 2003, under the working titleSunset.[20] The film is set mostly in and around the Führerbunker; Hirschbiegel made an effort to accurately reconstruct the look and atmosphere of World War II through eyewitness accounts, survivors' memoirs, and other historical sources. Hirschbiegel filmed in the cities of Berlin, Munich, and Saint Petersburg, Russia, with a run-down industrial district along the Obvodny Canal used to portray the historical setting in Berlin.[20][21] Hirschbiegel noted the depressing atmosphere surrounding the shoot, finding relief through listening to Johann Sebastian Bach's music.[16] Alexandra Maria Lara also mentioned the depressing and intense atmosphere during filming. To lighten the mood, Lara's colleagues engaged in activities such as football, while Ganz tried to keep a happy mood by retiring during shooting breaks.[19]

The film was produced on a €13.5 million budget.[4] The bunker and Hitler's Wolf's Lair were constructed at Bavaria Studios in Munich by production designer Bernd Lepel.[17][1] The damaged Reichstag building was depicted through the use of CGI. Hirschbiegel decided to limit the use of CGI, props and sets so as not to make the set design look like that of a theatre production,[17] explaining:

The only CGI shot that's been used in the film was the one with the Reichstag because of course we could not reconstruct that – that's the only thing. I'm very proud of that, because if you do a war movie, you cannot do that and build sets. You feel the cardboard. You feel that it's all made to entertain, and it takes away from that horror that war basically means.[17]

Themes[edit]

According to Eichinger, the film's overlying idea was to make a film about Hitler and wartime Germany that was very close to historical truth, as part of a theme that would allow the German nation to save their own history and "experience their own trauma". To accomplish this, the film explores Hitler's decisions and motives during his final days through the perspective of the individuals who lived in the Führerbunker during those times. Eichinger chose not to include mention of the Holocaust because it was not the topic of the film. He also thought it was "impossible" to show the "misery" and "desperation" of the concentration camps cinematically.[23][24]

Portrayal[edit]

During production, Hirschbiegel believed that Hitler would often charm people using his personality, only to manipulate and betray them.[16] Many of the people in the film, including Traudl Junge, are shown to be enthusiastic in interacting with Hitler instead of feeling threatened or anxious by his presence and authority. The production team sought to give Hitler a three-dimensional personality, with Hirschbiegel telling NBC: "We know from all accounts that he was a very charming man – a man who managed to seduce a whole people into barbarism."[25] He said Hitler was "like a shell", attracting people with self-pity, but inside the shell was only "an enormous will for destruction".[16]

The film explores the suicides and deaths of the Nazi Party as opposed to the people who choose life. Hitler's provision of cyanide pills to those in the bunker and the Goebbels' murder of their children are shown as selfish deeds while people such as Schenck, who choose to help the injured and escape death, are shown as rational and generous.[26] In the DVD commentary, Hirschbiegel said that the events in the film were "derived from the accounts, from descriptions of people" in the bunker.[28] The film also includes an introduction and closing with the real Junge in an interview from Im toten Winkel, where she admits feeling guilt for "not recognizing this monster in time".

Release[edit]

Downfall premiered at the Toronto Film Festival on September 14, 2004.[12] After first failing to find a distributor, the film was eventually released on September 16 in Germany by Constantin Film.[8][30] It premiered in the U.S. in Manhattan on February 18, 2005, under Newmarket Films.[31] On its broadcast in the UK, Channel 4 marketed it with the strapline: "It's a happy ending. He dies."[32]

Box office and awards[edit]

Downfall sold nearly half a million tickets in Germany for its opening weekend and attracted 4.5 million viewers in the first three months.[33] The final North American gross was $5,509,040, while $86,671,870 was made with its foreign gross.[5] The film made $93.6 million altogether.

In 2005, Downfall was nominated for an Oscar at the 77th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.[34] It won the 2005 BBC Four World Cinema competition.[35] The film was also ranked number 48 in Empire magazine's "The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema" in 2010.[36]

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

The review-aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 90% based on 140 reviews from critics, with a weighted average of 8.01/10. The website's consensus reads, "Downfall is an illuminating, thoughtful and detailed account of Hitler's last days."[37] On Metacritic, the film was awarded the "Must-See" badge, holding a weighted average of 82 out of 100 based on 35 reviews, indicating "universal acclaim".[38]

Reviews for the film were often very positive, despite debate surrounding the film from critics and audiences upon its release (see Controversy).[40][24] Ganz's portrayal of Hitler was singled out for praise;[41][42][43]David Denby for The New Yorker said that Ganz "made the dictator into a plausible human being".[44] Addressing other critics like Denby, Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert said the film did not provide an adequate portrayal of Hitler's actions, because he felt no film could, and that no response would be sufficient. Ebert said Hitler was, in reality, "the focus for a spontaneous uprising by many of the German people, fueled by racism, xenophobia, grandiosity and fear".[45]

Hermann Graml, history professor and former Luftwaffe helper, praised the film and said that he had not seen a film that was "so insistent and tormentingly alive". Graml said that Hitler's portrayal was presented correctly by showing Hitler's will "to destroy, and his way of denying reality".[46] Julia Radke of the German website Future Needs Remembrance praised the film's acting and called it well crafted and a solid Kammerspielfilm, though it could lose viewer interest due to a lack of concentration on the narrative perspective.[47] German author Jens Jessen said that the film "could have been stupider" and called it a "chamber play that could not be staged undramatically". Jessen also said that it was not as spectacular as the pre-media coverage could have led one to believe, and it did not arouse the "morbid fascination" the magazine Der Spiegel was looking for.[48]

Hitler biographer Sir Ian Kershaw wrote in The Guardian that the film had enormous emotive power, calling it a triumph and "a marvellous historical drama". Kershaw also said that he found it hard to imagine anyone would find Hitler to be a sympathetic figure in his final days.[30] Wim Wenders, in a review for the German newspaper Die Zeit, said the film was absent of a strong point of view for Hitler which made him harmless, and compared Downfall to Resident Evil: Apocalypse, stating that in Resident Evil the viewer would know which character was evil.[4][40]

Controversy[edit]

They just got it wrong. Bad people do not walk around with claws like vicious monsters, even though it might be comforting to think so. Everyone intelligent knows that evil comes along with a smiling face.[16]

—Hirschbiegel in 2015, on the criticism surrounding the portrayal of Hitler

Downfall was the subject of dispute by critics and audiences in Germany before and after its release, with many concerned regarding Hitler's portrayal in the film as a human being with emotions in spite of his actions and ideologies.[40][30] The portrayal sparked debate in Germany due to publicity from commentators, film magazines, and newspapers,[25][50] leading the German tabloid Bild to ask the question, "Are we allowed to show the monster as a human being?"[25]

It was criticized for its scenes involving the members of the Nazi party,[23] with author Giles MacDonogh criticizing the portrayals as being sympathetic towards SS officers Wilhelm Mohnke and Ernst-Günther Schenck, the former of whom was accused of murdering a group of British prisoners of war in the Wormhoudt massacre.[N 1] But at a discussion in London, Hirschbiegel said in response that he did not find the allegations against Schenck convincing.[54] The film was also seen as controversial because it was made by Germans instead of British or American filmmakers.[8] Russian press visited the set, making the producers uneasy and occasionally defensive. Yana Bezhanskay, director of Globus Film, Constantin's Russian partner, raised her voice to Russian journalists and said: "This is an antifascist film and nowhere in it do you see Hitler praised."[20]

Cristina Nord from Die Tageszeitung criticized the portrayal, and said that though it was important to make films about perpetrators, "seeing Hitler cry" had not informed her on the last days of the Third Reich.[55] Some have supported the film: Hans-Jürgen Syberberg, director of Hitler: A Film from Germany, felt the time was right to "paint a realistic portrait" of Hitler.[16] Eichinger replied to the response from the film by stating that the "terrifying thing" about Hitler was that he was human and "not an elephant or a monster from Mars".[8] Ganz said that he was proud of the film; though he said people had accused him of "humanizing" Hitler.[50]

Legacy[edit]

Parodies[edit]

See also: List of Internet phenomena

The scene depicting Hitler's angry tirade, after his orders were not carried out, became a viral videoafter numerous parodies were posted to the internet.

Downfall is well known for its rise in popularity due to many "Hitler Rants" internet parody videos which use several scenes in the film: where Hitler becomes angry after hearing that Steiner's attack never happened, due to a lack of forces; when Hitler hears Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring's telegram; when Hitler phones General der FliegerKarl Koller about Berlin's April 20 bombings; when Hitler is having dinner and discovers Reichsführer-SSHeinrich Himmler secretly made a surrender offer to the Western Allies; where Hitler orders Otto Günsche to find SS-GruppenführerHermann Fegelein; and when Hitler discusses a counterattack against advancing Soviet forces with his generals. In the videos the original German audio is retained, but new subtitles are added so that Hitler and his subordinates seem to be reacting to an issue or setback in present-day politics, sports, entertainment, popular culture, or everyday life.[56][57][58][59] In addition, some users combine footage from the film with other sources, dub the German dialogue over video games and/or footage from other films and TV series, or edit images of the characters onto pre-existing or animated footage, often for greater comic effect. The characters also gain several traits about their personalities based on their appearances in the film (such as Fegelein being a notorious prankster, Jodl objecting to Hitler's plans, Krebs having an unhealthy obsession with map-pointing and fish, and Burgdorf being a drunk person). By 2010, there were thousands of parodies.[60][61][58]

Hirschbiegel spoke positively about these parodies in a 2010 interview with New York magazine, saying that many of them were funny and a fitting extension of the film's purpose.[62] Nevertheless, Constantin Film asked video sites to remove them.[56] The producers initiated a removal of parody videos from YouTube in 2010.[63] This prompted more posting of parody videos of Hitler complaining that the parodies were being taken down, and a resurgence of the videos on the site.[61]

Home media[edit]

The film was released on DVD in 2005 by Columbia-TriStar Home Entertainment (now Sony Pictures Home Entertainment).[64]Shout! Factory released a collector's edition Blu-ray in March 2018, with a "making-of" featurette, cast and crew interviews, and audio commentary from director Oliver Hirschbiegel.[65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Informational notes

  1. ^Mohnke was rumoured, but never proven, to have ordered the execution near Dunkirk in 1940. He strongly denied the accusations against him, and told historian Thomas Fischer that he never issued any orders to take or execute English prisoners.

Citations

  1. ^ abcdeElley, Derek (16 September 2004). "Downfall". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  2. ^ ab"DOWNFALL (15)". British Board of Film Classification. 24 December 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  3. ^"Downfall (2004)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  4. ^ abcde"Eichinger-Film "Der Untergang": Bruno Ganz spielt späten Hitler". Spiegel Online (in German). 16 April 2003. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  5. ^ ab"DOWNFALL". Box Office Mojo.
  6. ^ abLandler, Mark (15 September 2004). "The All-Too-Human Hitler, on Your Big Screen". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  7. ^Vande Winkel 2007, p. 187.
  8. ^ abcdSummers, Sue (20 March 2005). "Now the Germans have their say". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  9. ^Denby, David (14 February 2005). "Back in the Bunker". The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  10. ^Oren, Michael B. (4 July 2005). "Pass the Fault". The New Republic. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  11. ^ abBathrik, David (1 November 2007). "Whose Hi/story Is It? The U.S. Reception of Downfall". New German Critique. Duke University Press. 34 (3): 1–16. doi:10.1215/0094033X-2007-008. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  12. ^Trapani, Salvatore (5 February 2005). "The Downfall – Interview: Oliver Hirschbiegel • Director". Cineuropa. Retrieved 21 February 2019.
  13. ^ abcDiver, Krysia; Moss, Stephen (25 March 2003). "Desperately seeking Adolf". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  14. ^ abcdefJohnston, Sheila (30 April 2015). "The dangers of portraying Hitler". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  15. ^ abcdCavagna, Carlo. "Interviews: DOWNFALL". AboutFilm.Com. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  16. ^Bonke, Johannes (17 September 2004). "Alexandra Maria Lara über ihr Gefühls-Chaos" (in German). Filmreporter.de. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  17. ^ abSarkar, David (25 August 2004). "Das Böse kann niemals eindimensional sein" (in German). Planet Interview. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  18. ^ abcVaroli, John (7 October 2003). "A War-Torn Berlin Reborn in Russia". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  19. ^Meza, Ed (12 August 2003). "Hitler pic lands in Russia". Variety. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  20. ^ ab"Controversial Hitler Film Opens Across Germany". Deutsche Welle. 17 September 2004. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  21. ^ abBorcholte, Andreas (15 September 2004). ""Der Untergang": Die unerzählbare Geschichte". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  22. ^ abcEckardt, Andy (16 September 2004). "Film showing Hitler's soft side stirs controversy". NBC News. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  23. ^Vande Winkel 2007.
  24. ^Fuchs, Cynthia (3 August 2005). "Downfall (2004)". PopMatters. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  25. ^ abcKershaw, Ian (17 September 2004). "The human Hitler". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  26. ^Scott, A. O. (18 February 2005). "The Last Days of Hitler: Raving and Ravioli". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  27. ^"Hitler: The Lost Files". The Irish Times. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
  28. ^"German film on Hitler's demise a box office hit". The Irish Times. 20 September 2004. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  29. ^"Hitler Film Wins Oscar Nomination". DW. 26 January 2005. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  30. ^"Downfall wins BBC world film gong". BBC. 26 January 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
  31. ^"The 100 Best Films Of World Cinema – 48. Downfall". Empire.
  32. ^"Downfall (Der Untergang) (2004)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  33. ^"Downfall Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
  34. ^ abc"A film depicting Adolf Hitler's human side is attracting crowds and stirring debate in Germany". Columbia University. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  35. ^Bradshaw, Peter (1 April 2005). "Downfall Review". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  36. ^Newman, Kim (10 May 2017). "Downfall Review". Empire. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  37. ^Smithey, Cole (9 May 2005). "German Filmmakers do Justice to the Fall of Hitler's Empire". Smart New Media.
  38. ^Denby, David (14 February 2005). "David Denby's comments on Der Untergang". The New Yorker. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  39. ^Ebert, Roger (11 March 2005). "Downfall". Chicago Sun-Times.
  40. ^""Der Untergang": Faktisch genau, dramaturgisch lau". Der Spiegel (in German). 16 August 2004. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  41. ^Radke, Julia (1 November 2004). "Hirschbiegel: Der Untergang. Filmrezension". Future Needs Remembrance (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  42. ^Jessen, Jens (26 August 2004). "Stilles Ende eines Irren unter Tage". Die Zeit (in German). Retrieved 15 November 2018.
  43. ^ ab"My Hitler part in 'Downfall'". The Irish Times. 26 March 2005. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  44. ^Higgins, Charlotte (5 April 2005). "Bunker film 'is too kind to Nazis'". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  45. ^Furlong, Ray (16 September 2004). "'Human' Hitler disturbs Germans". BBC. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  46. ^ abFinlo Rohrer (13 April 2010). "The rise, rise and rise of the Downfall Hitler parody". BBC News. Retrieved 13 April 2010.
  47. ^"Internetting: a user's guide #18 – How downfall gained cult status". The Guardian. London. 5 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  48. ^ ab"Kobra – Del 2 av 12: Hitlerhumor" (in Swedish). SVT Play. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
  49. ^Brady, Tara (31 July 2015). "Oliver Hirschbiegel: from Hitler to Princess Diana and back again". The Irish Times. Retrieved 10 May 2018.
  50. ^Boutin, Paul (25 February 2010). "Video Mad Libs With the Right Software". The New York Times. pp. B10. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
  51. ^ abEvangelista, Benny (23 July 2010). "Parody, copyright law clash in online clips". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  52. ^Rosenblum, Emma (15 January 2010). "The Director of Downfall Speaks Out on All Those Angry YouTube Hitlers". New York. Retrieved 16 January 2010.
  53. ^Finlo Rohrer (21 April 2010). "Downfall filmmakers want YouTube to take down Hitler spoofs". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
  54. ^Atanasov, Svet (8 August 2005). "Downfall". DVD Talk. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  55. ^"Downfall Collector's Edition Blu-ray Detailed". Blu-ray.com. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 16 November 2018.

Bibliography

  • Bangert, Axel (2014). The Nazi Past in Contemporary German Film: Viewing Experiences of Intimacy and Immersion. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN .
  • Bendix, John (Spring 2007). "Facing Hitler: German Responses to 'Downfall'". German Politics and Society. 25 (1 (82)): 70–89. doi:10.3167/gps.2007.250104. JSTOR 23742889.
  • Bösch, Frank (2007). "Film, NS-Vergangenheit und Geschichtswissenschaft. Von Holocaust zu Der Untergang". Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. 55 (1): 1–32. doi:10.1524/vfzg.2007.55.1.1. ISSN 0042-5702.open access
  • Fischer, Thomas (2008). Soldiers of the Leibstandarte. J. J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. ISBN .
  • Fisher, Jaimey; Prager, Brad (2010). The Collapse of the Conventional: German Film and Its Politics at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century. Wayne State University Press. ISBN .
  • MacDonogh, Giles; Eberle, Henrik; Uhl, Matthias (2005). The Hitler Book: The Secret Dossier Prepared for Stalin. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN .
  • Machtans, Karolin; Ruehl, Martin A. (30 November 2012). Hitler – Films from Germany: History, Cinema and Politics since 1945. Palgrave Macmillan UK. ISBN .
  • Mazierska, Ewa (12 July 2011). European Cinema and Intertextuality: History, Memory and Politics. Springer. ISBN .
  • Niemi, Robert (2018). 100 Great War Movies: The Real History Behind the Films. ABC-CLIO. ISBN .
  • Weale, Adrian (2012). Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York; Toronto: NAL Caliber (Penguin Group). ISBN .

Further reading

  • Bischof, Willi, ed. (2005). Filmri:ss; Studien über den Film "Der Untergang". Münster: Unrast Verlag. ISBN . (studies about the Film)
  • Fest, Joachim (2004). Inside Hitler's Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN .
  • Fischer, Thomas (2008). Soldiers of the Leibstandarte. J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. ISBN .
  • Junge, Traudl; Müller, Melissa; Bell, Anthea (2004). Until the Final Hour: Hitler's Last Secretary. New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN .
  • O'Donnell, James P (2001) [1978]. The Bunker: The History of the Reich Chancellery Group, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 978-0-395-25719-7.
  • Vande Winkel, Roel (2007). "Hitler's Downfall, a film from Germany (Der Untergang, 2004)". In Engelen, Leen; Vande Winkel, Roel (eds.). Perspectives on European Film and History. Gent: Academia Press. pp. 182–219. ISBN . Retrieved 18 April 2009.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downfall_(2004_film)

María Félix

María de los Ángeles Félix Güereña, known as María Félix, is undoubtedly the most famous Mexican actress. From the Golden Era of Mexican cinematography, María Félix is widely known to many as ‘the most beautiful face in the history of Mexican cinema.” Her impeccable taste for luxury and strong personality garnered her the title of “diva” in her early career. Félix was best known for her role in the film, Doña Bárbara, where she donned the character of a strong woman who went beyond the traditional roles of Latin American women. Félix’s performance was so powerful that she became known as “La Doña” in honor of her unforgettable character. In addition, Félix understood the strength of her star power and intentionally engaged it to speak up in Mexican national media toward important causes, including: female empowerment and women equality; indigenous rights; and the importance of preserving historical architecture in Mexico City. Today, despite the incredible work she did for her country, her influence and prominence spans far beyond Mexico to Latin America, Spain, Italy, and France. 

Sours: https://www.cmgworldwide.com/maria-felix/
  1. Culture kings caps
  2. Bottle opener novelty
  3. Male werewolf costume
  4. Tarrant county open records request
maria felix quotes work johanna maria fritz is the winner of the german peace prize for

johanna maria fritz is the winner of the german peace prize for

.
maria felix quotes work 🐣 25 best memes about memes maria felix memes maria felix memes

🐣 25 best memes about memes maria felix memes maria felix memes

.
maria felix quotes work 🐣 25 best memes about memes maria felix memes maria felix memes

🐣 25 best memes about memes maria felix memes maria felix memes

.
maria felix quotes work the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

.
maria felix quotes work amazon com posterazzi belle aka la bella otero maria felix 1954

amazon com posterazzi belle aka la bella otero maria felix 1954

.
maria felix quotes work 🐣 25 best memes about maria felix memes maria felix memes

🐣 25 best memes about maria felix memes maria felix memes

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix a 100 year myth

maria felix a 100 year myth

.
maria felix quotes work amazon com posterazzi belle aka la bella otero maria felix 1954

amazon com posterazzi belle aka la bella otero maria felix 1954

.
maria felix quotes work famous women in history maria felix

famous women in history maria felix

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix a 100 year myth

maria felix a 100 year myth

.
maria felix quotes work 727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

.
maria felix quotes work maría félix biography imdb

maría félix biography imdb

.
maria felix quotes work maría félix tumblr

maría félix tumblr

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix quotes a un hombre 1000 images about maria felix on

maria felix quotes a un hombre 1000 images about maria felix on

.
maria felix quotes work maría félix tumblr

maría félix tumblr

.
maria felix quotes work discover and read dorothy dandridge s most popular quotes

discover and read dorothy dandridge s most popular quotes

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix − dipping into light

maria felix − dipping into light

.
maria felix quotes work the mystery of maria félix s jewels the adventurine

the mystery of maria félix s jewels the adventurine

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix by daniela jarava

maria felix by daniela jarava

.
maria felix quotes work famous women in history maria felix

famous women in history maria felix

.
maria felix quotes work 45 best maria felix images spanish quotes quotes en espanol

45 best maria felix images spanish quotes quotes en espanol

.
maria felix quotes work snowi maria felix snowi maria felix quotes yourquote

snowi maria felix snowi maria felix quotes yourquote

.
maria felix quotes work maría félix imdb

maría félix imdb

.
maria felix quotes work start working from today quotes writings by snowi maria

start working from today quotes writings by snowi maria

.
maria felix quotes work 727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix quote mas cabrona que bonita roses art mug etsy

maria felix quote mas cabrona que bonita roses art mug etsy

.
maria felix quotes work the mystery of maria félix s jewels the adventurine

the mystery of maria félix s jewels the adventurine

.
maria felix quotes work designs by maria inc motivational inspirational quotes art prints

designs by maria inc motivational inspirational quotes art prints

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix by pierre philippe

maria felix by pierre philippe

.
maria felix quotes work 727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

.
maria felix quotes work 45 best maria felix images spanish quotes quotes en espanol

45 best maria felix images spanish quotes quotes en espanol

.
maria felix quotes work 29 best maria felix images spanish quotes diva quotes quotes

29 best maria felix images spanish quotes diva quotes quotes

.
maria felix quotes work 727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

.
maria felix quotes work snowi maria felix snowi maria felix quotes yourquote

snowi maria felix snowi maria felix quotes yourquote

.
maria felix quotes work the mystery of maria félix s jewels the adventurine

the mystery of maria félix s jewels the adventurine

.
maria felix quotes work a man and his word quotes top 56 famous quotes about a man and

a man and his word quotes top 56 famous quotes about a man and

.
maria felix quotes work maría felix frases spanish quotes latinas quotes frases

maría felix frases spanish quotes latinas quotes frases

.
maria felix quotes work 26 best maria felix quotes♡ images in 2020 spanish quotes diva

26 best maria felix quotes♡ images in 2020 spanish quotes diva

.
maria felix quotes work biography of bisexual painter frida kahlo

biography of bisexual painter frida kahlo

.
maria felix quotes work encouraging quotes to lift your spirits

encouraging quotes to lift your spirits

.
maria felix quotes work maría félix to be honored in ¡viva méxico festival in paris

maría félix to be honored in ¡viva méxico festival in paris

.
maria felix quotes work 727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

.
maria felix quotes work la corona negra 1951 imdb

la corona negra 1951 imdb

.
maria felix quotes work the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

.
maria felix quotes work snowi maria felix snowi maria felix quotes yourquote

snowi maria felix snowi maria felix quotes yourquote

.
maria felix quotes work copywriting quotes you can use image formats included

copywriting quotes you can use image formats included

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix quotes on a few days of tears abrainyquote

maria felix quotes on a few days of tears abrainyquote

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix mas cabrona que bonita serpenthes roses art etsy

maria felix mas cabrona que bonita serpenthes roses art etsy

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix todas mis guerras by maría félix

maria felix todas mis guerras by maría félix

.
maria felix quotes work 45 best maria felix images spanish quotes quotes en espanol

45 best maria felix images spanish quotes quotes en espanol

.
maria felix quotes work the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix todas mis guerras by maría félix

maria felix todas mis guerras by maría félix

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix a 100 year myth

maria felix a 100 year myth

.
maria felix quotes work maria felix quotes on ferrari and happiness abrainyquote

maria felix quotes on ferrari and happiness abrainyquote

.
maria felix quotes work reporter clarifies serena williams quotes on meghan markle

reporter clarifies serena williams quotes on meghan markle

.
maria felix quotes work 20 entrepreneur quotes to inspire your business journey thejfranco

20 entrepreneur quotes to inspire your business journey thejfranco

.
maria felix quotes work 🐣 25 best memes about memes maria felix memes maria felix memes

🐣 25 best memes about memes maria felix memes maria felix memes

.
maria felix quotes work the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

the holy enchilada la doña maria felix an inspiring muse

.
maria felix quotes work 727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

727 best maria felix quotes images quotes spanish quotes me quotes

.
maria felix quotes work maría félix tumblr

maría félix tumblr

.
Sours: https://dogtrainingobedienceschool.com/maria-felix-quotes-work/55934_25-best-memes-about-maria-felix-memes-maria-felix-memes.html
María Félix - Entrevista

.

Felix memes maria

.

¡Las frases más célebres de 'La Doña' María Félix!- Cuéntamelo YA!

.

You will also be interested:

.



12 13 14 15 16