Techopedia Explains SAP DBUnlike SAP DB, which is open source, MaxDB is closed source, and its source code is not available under the GNU Public License. MAxDB is based on industry standards with interfaces like SQL92, Java Database Connectivity and Open Database Connectivity. MaxDB is also cross-platform based and has been offering releases for HP-UX, IBM AIX, Linux, Solaris, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows Server 2003 and Microsoft Windows XP.
The main features of MaxDB include:
- Minimal administration is needed to run the database system, which has self-administering features. The system can adjust database size and back up log entries automatically.
- MaxDB includes self-administration and development tools. Most of the tools provided are GUI-based.
- Offers built-in hot backup
- Good online transaction processing (OLTP) performance with fewer hardware requirements
- High availability mode and fewer fault records
- Software installations are fully isolated from one another
- Identifies clients running commands
- Multiple log partitions allow parallel log writing
- Default load balancing for CPU
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Get enterprise power at a small price – with our relational database management system
Gain flexibility unmatched by SQL-only databases – with both ISAM and SQL data access
Develop powerful data-driven applications for client-server and mobile environments
Scale from local to peer-to-peer to client-server environments with one set of source code
Install and manage without the need for a database administrator
Extend your existing applications with SAP Advantage Database Server, a full-featured, easily embedded, relational database management system. Use multiple platforms and development languages,SQL or ISAM data access with native drivers – and manage your database from any location, on any device, even while it’s in use.
Jump-start your implementation and drive ROI by collaborating with industry experts, consultants, and support engineers throughout your journey.
Transform your business quickly and effectively by taking advantage of our holistic service and support plans, expert consulting services, custom application development, proven best practices, and deep industry and technical knowledge.
Help keep your SAP solutions running at peak performance with our IT experts and support services, including long-term plans, embedded teams, remote technology support, self-service portal, and innovation strategies.
Security and compliance
Focus on your business and customer relationships, while keeping your data safe and reliable. SAP takes a proactive, predictive approach to maintaining compliance and data security in the cloud and within an on-premise data center.
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Unite all the data you have into the answers you need
Database and Data Management solutions power SAP Business Technology Platform, enabling complete control of your data landscape with an end-to-end view of all data through one single gateway.
SAP offers an all-in-one data management solution that delivers advanced transactional and analytical processing with the broadest advanced analytics solutions – securely – across hybrid and multi-cloud environments.
SAP solutions for data management give you the tools you need to identify, gather, analyze, and make available the most context-relevant data throughout your enterprise.
Data Management Solution Extensions
Extend your data management products with diverse solutions that help customers transform and enhance their business.
SAP Data and Analytics Virtual Forum
Hear how to drive stronger insights, intelligence, and impact for your business.
Turn your data into business value
Database and data management solutions provide the ability to handle the growing amounts of data stored in multiple locations with controlled access for your entire organization to analyze and act on a single version of the truth.
Run data anywhere
Modernize data stores with flexible deployment options, tailored data centers, or certified appliance configurations from reliable vendors.
Reduce data redundancy
Virtualize data access to reduce the need to replicate data and analyze live data on a single platform for transanalytic applications.
Connect and understand data
Deliver data-driven innovation across distributed landscapes, complex data types, and processing engines.
Govern master data
Build a comprehensive system of master data to streamline business processes and gain a single, trusted view of master data across the value chain.
Database and Data Management Product Overview
SAP HANA is a comprehensive platform that combines a robust database with services for creating innovative applications. It enables real-time business by converging transactions and analytics on one in-memory database.
- Advanced in-memory processing to reduce latency to a minimum
- Real-time insight from Big Data and the Internet of Things
- Integrated data replication and virtualization that increase scalability and lower complexity
- Support for modern applications that use multimodel data such as geospatial and streaming data
- Tools to help keep business secure, minimize downtime, and support compliance with security standards
SAP HANA Cloud
SAP HANA Cloud is a fully managed in-memory cloud database as a service (DBaaS) that provides one source of streamlined business data.
- Minimize total cost of ownership with elastic pricing and 10X compression
- Maximize freedom of choice in storage by virtually moving any data from any source
- Reduce data duplication by remotely querying data without moving it
- Work with thousands of partners in implementing, administering monitoring, and optimizing SAP HANA and SAP HANA Cloud
SAP Master Data Governance
Gain a unified, trusted view of your master data and address digital, analytical, and operational challenges head on.
- Consolidation, central governance and data quality management of master data
- Automation of the replication and syndication of master data throughout the system landscape
- Prebuilt data models, business rules, workflow, and user interfaces
- Support for all master data domains and implementation styles in a single application
- On-premise, private, and public cloud deployment
SAP Data Intelligence
Propel your business forward with trusted, data-driven processes, insights, and innovation using data orchestration and scalable machine learning.
- Connection to data from a single enterprise data fabric
- Transformation of data across complex data types and curation of a robust, searchable data catalog
- Orchestration of complex data flows with scalable, repeatable machine learning pipelines
SAP Extended Enterprise Content Management
The SAP Extended Enterprise Content Management application by OpenText connects your structured data and unstructured content, helping you work smarter across processes to improve customer and employee experiences, increase productivity, lower procurement costs, boost asset ROI, and enable automation through machine learning.
- Personalize customer experiences across channels
- Improve staff productivity through collaboration
- Purchase smarter with an enhanced supplier network
- Digitalize maintenance and repair operations
- Adapt quickly to future innovative technologies
- Enhance regulatory compliance
What is Gartner saying about database and data management solutions from SAP?
SAP named a leader in enterprise information management
Find out why the latest Gartner reports ranked SAP as a leader in data quality and integration tools as well as metadata management.
Simplify your move to a cloud database management system
See the Gartner evaluation of cloud DBMS vendors, and learn why Gartner named SAP a Leader in its 2020 Magic Quadrant for Cloud Database Management Systems.
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SAP customers can rely on the secure global infrastructure of Amazon Web Services (AWS) to easily run SAP database and mobile solutions in the cloud. Without the cost or complexity of purchasing servers or managing data centers, you have more resources to focus on your solution and provide value to your customers.
Amazon Web Services (AWS) and SAP have worked together closely to certify the AWS platform so that companies of all sizes can fully realize all the benefits of the SAP HANA in-memory computing platform on the AWS cloud. Learn more >
AWS supports the SAP Adaptive Server Enterprise (ASE) database using a Bring Your Own License model. SAP ASE combined with the AWS cloud provides a high performance, enterprise-class, relational database management system that is well suited for mission-critical, data-intensive environments. Additional information about running SAP ASE on AWS can be found in SAP Note 2086750 (requires SAP Service Marketplace credentials).
Pre-built images of SAP ASE on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) and Microsoft Windows are available in the AWS Marketplace. These enable rapid deployment by eliminating the need to manually install software. Learn more >
SAP IQ is a highly optimized RDBMS built for extreme-scale big data analytics and warehousing. With SAP IQ on AWS, companies can gain an edge in today’s data-intensive world by providing deeper insights across your organization –- insights that were never before practical, or even possible. To learn more about SAP IQ on AWS, see SAP Note 1656099 (requires SAP Service Marketplace credentials).
The SAP Replication Server technology, combined with AWS cloud infrastructures, provides a proven data replication platform to help you satisfy a host of mission-critical needs -– from application high availability and disaster recovery, to seamless, lightning-fast data distribution, to smart decision-making based on up-to-the-second information. To learn more about SAP Replication Server and AWS, read the Real-Time Data Replication for the Cloud blog post on the SAP Community Network website.
SAP Mobile Secure, cloud edition, provides enterprises with complete SaaS-based mobile device management and mobile app management capabilities to secure mobile devices and apps without the complexity and expense of an on-premises installation. Companies can enjoy enterprise mobility through a subscription model with the assurance that all operational aspects -– from app discovery and deployment to device security, upgrades, and disaster recover -– are expertly managed for them.
SAP Mobile Secure provides the lowest per-device, per-month cost possible. It provides a dedicated environment at shared environment cost. Maintenance, upgrades, and support are all included as part of the subscription. It requires no initial investment for licensing, hardware, or equipment. Learn more >
MaxDB is an ANSISQL-92 (entry level) compliant relational database management system (RDBMS) from SAP AG, which was also delivered by MySQL AB from 2003 to 2007. MaxDB is targeted for large SAP environments e.g. mySAP Business Suite and other applications that require enterprise-level database functionality.
The database development started in 1977 as a research project at the Technical University of Berlin headed by Rudolf Munz. In the early 1980s it became a database product that subsequently was owned by Nixdorf Computer, Siemens-Nixdorf, Software AG and today by SAP AG. It has at various times been named VDN, RDS, Reflex, Supra 2, DDB/4, Entire SQL-DB-Server and Adabas D. In 1997 SAP acquired the software from Software AG and developed it as SAP DB, releasing the source code under the GNU General Public License in October 2000.
In 2003 SAP AG and MySQL AB jointly re-branded the database system to MaxDB. In October 2007 this reselling agreement was terminated and sales and support of the database reverted to SAP. SAP AG now manages MaxDB development, distribution, and support. New versions of the source code of MaxDB are no longer available under the GNU General Public License. SAP also stated that "Further commercial support concepts to cover mission critical use requirements outside of SAP scenarios are currently subject to discussion."
MaxDB since version 7.5 is based on the code base of SAP DB 7.4. Therefore, the MaxDB software version 7.5 can be used as a direct upgrade of previous SAP DB versions starting 7.2.04 and higher
MaxDB is delivered with a set of administration and development tools. Most tools are available with both a GUI and command line interface (CLI). It offers bindings for JDBC; ODBC; SQLDBC (native C/C++ interface); precompiler; PHP; Perl; Python; WebDAV; OLE DB, ADO, DAO, RDO and .NET via ODBC; Delphi and Tcl via Third Party Programming Interfaces. MaxDB is cross-platform, offering releases for HP-UX, IBM AIX, Linux, Solaris, Microsoft Windows 2000, Microsoft Windows Server 2003, and up to Microsoft Windows 10.
MaxDB offers built-in hot backup, does not need any online reorganizations and claims to be SQL 92 Entry-Level compatible.
MaxDB since version 7.7.00, uses multiversion concurrency control (MVCC) instead of the previous lock based implementation.
MaxDB was licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) from versions 7.2 through 7.6. Programming interfaces were licensed under the GPL with exceptions for projects released under other open source licenses.
SAP DB 7.3 and 7.4 were licensed as GPL but with LGPL drivers. MaxDB 7.5 was offered under dual licensing, i.e. licensed as GPL with GPL drivers or a commercial license.
From version 7.5 through version 7.6 onwards distribution of MaxDB (previously SAP DB) to the open source community was provided by MySQL AB, the same company that develops the open-source software database, MySQL. Development was done by SAP AG, MySQL AB and the open-source software community.
In October 2007 SAP assumed full sales and commercial support for MaxDB. MaxDB 7.6 is now closed source, available free-of-charge (without support, and with usage restrictions) for use with non-SAP applications.
SAP deployment on Azure using an Oracle DB
SAP systems are used to run mission-critical business applications. Any outage disrupts key processes and can cause increased expenses or lost revenue. Avoiding these outcomes requires an SAP infrastructure that is highly available and resilient when failures occur.
Building a highly available SAP environment requires eliminating single points of failures in your system architecture and processes. Single points of failure can be caused by site failures, errors in system components, or even human error.
This example scenario demonstrates an SAP deployment on Windows or Linux virtual machines (VMs) on Azure, along with a High Availability (HA) Oracle database. For your SAP deployment, you can use VMs of different sizes based on your requirements.
Relevant use cases
Other relevant use cases include:
- Mission-critical workloads running on SAP.
- Non-critical SAP workloads.
- Test environments for SAP that simulate a high-availability environment.
This example includes a high availability configuration for an Oracle database, SAP central services, and multiple SAP application servers running on different virtual machines. The Azure network uses a hub-and-spoke topology for security purposes. The data flows through the solution as follows:
- Users access the SAP system via the SAP user interface, a web browser, or other client tools like Microsoft Excel. An ExpressRoute connection provides access from the organization's on-premises network to resources running in Azure.
- The ExpressRoute terminates in Azure at the ExpressRoute virtual network (VNet) gateway. Network traffic is routed to a gateway subnet through the ExpressRoute gateway created in the hub VNet.
- The hub VNet is peered to a spoke VNet. The application tier subnet hosts the virtual machines running SAP in an availability set.
- The identity management servers provide authentication services for the solution.
- The jump box is used by system administrators to securely manage resources deployed in Azure.
Virtual Networks are used in this scenario to create a virtual hub-and-spoke topology in Azure.
Virtual Machines provide the compute resources for each tier of the solution. Each cluster of virtual machines is configured as an availability set.
ExpressRoute extends your on-premises network into the Microsoft cloud through a private connection established by a connectivity provider.
Network security groups limit network access to the resources in a virtual network. A network security group contains a list of security rules that allow or deny network traffic based on source or destination IP address, port, and protocol.
Resource groups act as logical containers for Azure resources.
SAP provides flexible options for different combinations of operating system, database management system, and VM types in an Azure environment. For more information, see SAP note 1928533, "SAP Applications on Azure: Supported Products and Azure VM Types".
To help you explore the cost of running this scenario, all of the services are pre-configured in the cost calculator examples below. To see how the pricing would change for your particular use case, change the appropriate variables to match your expected traffic.
We have provided four sample cost profiles based on amount of traffic you expect to receive:
|Size||SAPs||DB VM Type||DB Storage||(A)SCS VM||(A)SCS Storage||App VM Type||App Storage||Azure Pricing Calculator|
|Small||30000||DS13_v2||4xP20, 1xP20||DS11_v2||1x P10||DS13_v2||1x P10||Small|
|Medium||70000||DS14_v2||6xP20, 1xP20||DS11_v2||1x P10||4x DS13_v2||1x P10||Medium|
|Large||180000||E32s_v3||5xP30, 1xP20||DS11_v2||1x P10||6x DS14_v2||1x P10||Large|
|Extra Large||250000||M64s||6xP30, 1xP30||DS11_v2||1x P10||10x DS14_v2||1x P10||Extra Large|
This pricing is a guide and only indicates the VMs and storage costs. It excludes networking, backup storage, and data ingress/egress charges.
Small: A small system consists of VM type DS13_v2 for the database server with 8x vCPUs, 56-GB RAM, and 112 GB of temporary storage, along with five 512-GB premium storage disks; an SAP Central Instance server using a DS11_v2 VM types with 2x vCPUs, 14-GB RAM, and 28 GB of temporary storage; and a single VM type DS13_v2 for the SAP application server with 8x vCPUs, 56-GB RAM, and 400 GB of temporary storage, along with one 128-GB premium storage disk.
Medium: A medium system consists of VM type DS14_v2 for the database server with 16x vCPUs, 112 GB RAM, and 800 GB of temporary storage, along with seven 512-GB premium storage disks; an SAP Central Instance server using a DS11_v2 VM types with 2x vCPUs 14-GB RAM and 28 GB of temporary storage; four VM type DS13_v2 for the SAP application server with 8x vCPUs, 56-GB RAM, and 400 GB of temporary storage, along with one 128-GB premium storage disk.
Large: A large system consists of VM type E32s_v3 for the database server with 32x vCPUs, 256-GB RAM, and 800 GB of temporary storage, along with three 512 GB and one 128-GB premium storage disk; an SAP Central Instance server using a DS11_v2 VM types with 2x vCPUs, 14-GB RAM, and 28 GB of temporary storage; six VM type DS14_v2 for the SAP application servers with 16x vCPUs, 112 GB RAM, and 224 GB temporary storage, along with six 128-GB premium storage disks.
Extra Large: An extra-large system consists of the M64s VM type for the database server with 64x vCPUs, 1024 GB RAM, and 2000 GB of temporary storage, along with seven 1024-GB premium storage disks; an SAP Central Instance server using a DS11_v2 VM types with 2x vCPUs 14-GB RAM and 28 GB of temporary storage; ten VM type DS14_v2 for the SAP application servers with 16x vCPUs, 112 GB RAM, and 224 GB of temporary storage, along with ten 128-GB premium storage disks.
Click the link below to deploy the solution.
SAP and Oracle are not installed during this deployment. You will need to deploy these components separately.
For other information about running SAP production workloads in Azure, review the following reference architectures:
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Database management system by SAP
SAP HANA (high-performance analytic appliance) is an in-memory, column-oriented, relational database management system developed and marketed by SAP SE. Its primary function as the software running a database server is to store and retrieve data as requested by the applications. In addition, it performs advanced analytics (predictive analytics, spatial data processing, text analytics, text search, streaming analytics, graph data processing) and includes extract, transform, load (ETL) capabilities as well as an application server.
During the early development of SAP HANA, a number of technologies were developed or acquired by SAP SE. These included TREX search engine (in-memorycolumn-oriented search engine), P*TIME (in-memory online transaction processing (OLTP) Platform acquired by SAP in 2005), and MaxDB with its in-memory liveCache engine.
The first major demonstration of the platform was in 2008: teams from SAP SE, the Hasso Plattner Institute and Stanford University demonstrated an application architecture for real-time analytics and aggregation called HYRISE. Former SAP SE executive, Vishal Sikka, mentioned this architecture as "Hasso's New Architecture". Before the name "HANA" stabilized, people referred to this product as "New Database". The software was previously called "SAP High-Performance Analytic Appliance".
A first research paper on HYRISE was published in November 2010. The research engine is later released open source in 2013, and was reengineered in 2016 to become HYRISE2 in 2017.
The first product shipped in late November 2010. By mid-2011, the technology had attracted interest but more experienced business customers considered it to be "in early days". HANA support for SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse was announced in September 2011 for availability by November.
In 2012, SAP promoted aspects of cloud computing. In October 2012, SAP announced a platform as a service offering called the SAP HANA Cloud Platform and a variant called SAP HANA One that used a smaller amount of memory.
In May 2013, a managed private cloud offering called the HANA Enterprise Cloud service was announced.
In May 2013, Business Suite on HANA became available, enabling customers to run SAP Enterprise Resource Planning functions on the HANA platform.
S/4HANA, released in 2015, written specifically for the HANA platform, combines functionality for ERP, CRM, SRM and others into a single HANA system. S/4HANA is intended to be a simplified business suite, replacing earlier generation ERP systems. While it is likely that SAP will focus its innovations on S/4HANA, some customers using non-HANA systems have raised concerns of being locked into SAP products. Since S/4HANA requires an SAP HANA system to run, customers running SAP business suite applications on hardware not certified by SAP would need to migrate to a SAP-certified HANA database should they choose the features offered by S/4HANA.
Rather than versioning, the software utilizes service packs, referred to as Support Package Stacks (SPS), for updates. Support Package Stacks are released every 6 months.
In November 2016 SAP announced SAP HANA 2, which offers enhancements to multiple areas such as database management and application management and includes two new cloud services: Text Analysis and Earth Observation Analysis. HANA customers can upgrade to HANA 2 from SPS10 and above. Customers running SPS9 and below must first upgrade to SPS12 before upgrading to HANA 2 SPS01.
The key distinctions between HANA and previous generation SAP systems are that it is a column-oriented, in-memory database, that combines OLAP and OLTP operations into a single system; thus in general SAP HANA is an OLTAP system. Storing data in main memory rather than on disk provides faster data access and, by extension, faster querying and processing. While storing data in-memory confers performance advantages, it is a more costly form of data storage. Observing data access patterns, up to 85% of data in an enterprise system may be infrequently accessed therefore it can be cost-effective to store frequently accessed, or "hot", data in-memory while the less frequently accessed "warm" data is stored on disk, an approach SAP have termed "Dynamic tiering".
Column-oriented systems store all data for a single column in the same location, rather than storing all data for a single row in the same location (row-oriented systems). This can enable performance improvements for OLAP queries on large datasets and allows greater vertical compression of similar types of data in a single column. If the read times for column-stored data is fast enough, consolidated views of the data can be performed on the fly, removing the need for maintaining aggregate views and its associated data redundancy.
Although row-oriented systems have traditionally been favored for OLTP, in-memory storage opens techniques to develop hybrid systems suitable for both OLAP and OLTP capabilities, removing the need to maintain separate systems for OLTP and OLAP operations.
The index server performs session management, authorization, transaction management and command processing. The database has both a row store and a columnar store. Users can create tables using either store, but the columnar store has more capabilities and is most frequently used. The index server also manages persistence between cached memory images of database objects, log files and permanent storage files. The XS engine allows web applications to be built.
SAP HANA Information Modeling (also known as SAP HANA Data Modeling) is a part of HANA application development. Modeling is the methodology to expose operational data to the end user. Reusable virtual objects (named calculation views) are used in the modelling process.
SAP HANA manages concurrency through the use of multiversion concurrency control (MVCC), which gives every transaction a snapshot of the database at a point in time. When an MVCC database needs to update an item of data, it will not overwrite the old data with new data, but will instead mark the old data as obsolete and add the newer version.
In a scale-out environment, HANA can keep volumes of up to a petabyte of data in memory while returning query results in under a second. However, RAM is still much more expensive than disk space, so the scale-out approach is only feasible for certain time critical use cases.
SAP HANA includes a number of analytic engines for various kinds of data processing. The Business Function Library includes a number of algorithms made available to address common business data processing algorithms such as asset depreciation, rolling forecast and moving average. The Predictive Analytics Library includes native algorithms for calculating common statistical measures in areas such as clustering, classification and time series analysis.
HANA incorporates the open source statistical programming language R as a supported language within stored procedures.
The column-store database offers graph database capabilities. The graph engine processes the Cypher Query Language and also has a visual graph manipulation via a tool called Graph Viewer. Graph data structures are stored directly in relational tables in HANA's column store. Pre-built algorithms in the graph engine include pattern matching, neighborhood search, single shortest path, and strongly connected components. Typical usage situations for the Graph Engine include examples like supply chain traceability, fraud detection, and logistics and route planning.
HANA also includes a spatial database engine which implements spatial data types and SQL extensions for CRUD operations on spatial data. HANA is certified by the Open Geospatial Consortium, and it integrates with ESRI'sArcGIS geographic information system.
In addition to numerical and statistical algorithms, HANA can perform text analytics and enterprise text search. HANA's search capability is based on “fuzzy” fault-tolerant search, much like modern web-based search engines. Results include a statistical measure for how relevant search results are, and search criteria can include a threshold of accuracy for results. Analyses available include identifying entities such as people, dates, places, organizations, requests, problems, and more. Such entity extraction can be catered to specific use cases such as Voice of the Customer (customer's preferences and expectations), Enterprise (i.e. mergers and acquisitions, products, organizations), and Public Sector (public persons, events, organizations). Custom extraction and dictionaries can also be implemented.
Supporting the application server is a suite of application lifecycle management tools allowing development deployment and monitoring of user-facing applications.
HANA can be deployed on-premises or in the cloud from a number of cloud service providers.
HANA can be deployed on-premises as a new appliance from a certified hardware vendor. Alternatively, existing hardware components such as storage and network can be used as part of the implementation, an approach which SAP calls "Tailored Data Center Integration (TDI)". HANA is certified to run on multiple operating systems including SUSE Linux Enterprise Server and Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Supported hardware platforms for on-premise deployment include Intel 64 and POWER Systems. The system is designed to support both horizontal and vertical scaling.
Multiple cloud providers offer SAP HANA on an Infrastructure as a Service basis, including:
SAP also offer their own cloud services in the form of:
SAP HANA licensing is primarily divided into two categories.
Used to run SAP applications such as SAP Business Warehouse powered by SAP HANA and SAP S/4HANA.
Full Use License:
Used to run both SAP and non-SAP applications. This licensing can be used to create custom applications.
As part of the full use license, features are grouped as editions targeting various use cases.
- Base Edition: Provides core database features and development tools but does not support SAP applications.
- Platform Edition: Base edition plus spatial, predictive, R server integration, search, text, analytics, graph engines and additional packaged business libraries.
- Enterprise Edition: Platform edition plus additional bundled components for some of the data loading capabilities and the rule framework.
In addition, capabilities such as streaming and ETL are licensed as additional options.
As of March 9, 2017, SAP HANA is available in an Express edition; a streamlined version which can run on laptops and other resource-limited environments. The license for SAP HANA, express edition is free of charge, even for productive use up to 32 GB of RAM. Additional capacity increases can be purchased.
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