Element group number

Element group number DEFAULT

How Are Elements Grouped in the Periodic Table?

In the late 19th century, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published his first attempt at grouping chemical elements according to their atomic weights. There were only about 60 elements known at the time, but Mendeleev realized that when the elements were organized by weight, certain types of elements occurred in regular intervals, or periods.

Today, 150 years later, chemists officially recognize 118 elements (after the addition of four newcomers in 2016) and still use Mendeleev's periodic table of elements to organize them. The table starts with the simplest atom, hydrogen, and then organizes the rest of the elements by atomic number, which is the number of protons each contains. With a handful of exceptions, the order of the elements corresponds with the increasing mass of each atom.

The table has seven rows and 18 columns. Each row represents one period; the period number of an element indicates how many of its energy levels house electrons. Sodium, for instance, sits in the third period, which means a sodium atom typically has electrons in the first three energy levels. Moving down the table, periods are longer because it takes more electrons to fill the larger and more complex outer levels.

The columns of the table represent groups, or families, of elements. The elements in a group often look and behave similarly, because they have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell — the face they show to the world. Group 18 elements, on the far right side of the table, for example, have completely full outer shells and rarely participate in chemical reactions.

Elements are typically classified as either a metal or nonmetal, but the dividing line between the two is fuzzy. Metal elements are usually good conductors of electricity and heat. The subgroups within the metals are based on the similar characteristics and chemical properties of these collections. Our description of the periodic table uses commonly accepted groupings of elements, according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Alkali metals: The alkali metals make up most of Group 1, the table's first column. Shiny and soft enough to cut with a knife, these metals start with lithium (Li) and end with francium (Fr). They are also extremely reactive and will burst into flame or even explode on contact with water, so chemists store them in oils or inert gases. Hydrogen, with its single electron, also lives in Group 1, but the gas is considered a nonmetal.

Alkaline-earth metals: The alkaline-earth metals make up Group 2 of the periodic table, from beryllium (Be) through radium (Ra). Each of these elements has two electrons in its outermost energy level, which makes the alkaline earths reactive enough that they're rarely found alone in nature. But they're not as reactive as the alkali metals. Their chemical reactions typically occur more slowly and produce less heat compared to the alkali metals.

Lanthanides: The third group is much too long to fit into the third column, so it is broken out and flipped sideways to become the top row of the island that floats at the bottom of the table. This is the lanthanides, elements 57 through 71 — lanthanum (La) to lutetium (Lu). The elements in this group have a silvery white color and tarnish on contact with air.

Actinides: The actinides line the bottom row of the island and comprise elements 89, actinium (Ac), through 103, lawrencium (Lr). Of these elements, only thorium (Th) and uranium (U) occur naturally on Earth in substantial amounts. All are radioactive. The actinides and the lanthanides together form a group called the inner transition metals.

Transition metals: Returning to the main body of the table, the remainder of Groups 3 through 12 represent the rest of the transition metals. Hard but malleable, shiny, and possessing good conductivity, these elements are what you typically think of when you hear the word metal. Many of the greatest hits of the metal world — including gold, silver, iron and platinum — live here.

Post-transition metals: Ahead of the jump into the nonmetal world, shared characteristics aren't neatly divided along vertical group lines. The post-transition metals are aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), tin (Sn), lead (Pb) and bismuth (Bi), and they span Group 13 to Group 17. These elements have some of the classic characteristics of the transition metals, but they tend to be softer and conduct more poorly than other transition metals. Many periodic tables will feature a bolded "staircase" line below the diagonal connecting boron with astatine. The post-transition metals cluster to the lower left of this line.

Metalloids: The metalloids are boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and polonium (Po). They form the staircase that represents the gradual transition from metals to nonmetals. These elements sometimes behave as semiconductors (B, Si, Ge) rather than as conductors. Metalloids are also called "semimetals" or "poor metals."

Nonmetals: Everything else to the upper right of the staircase — plus hydrogen (H), stranded way back in Group 1 — is a nonmetal. These include carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), oxygen (O), sulfur (S) and selenium (Se).

Halogens: The top four elements of Group 17, from fluorine (F) through astatine (At), represent one of two subsets of the nonmetals. The halogens are quite chemically reactive and tend to pair up with alkali metals to produce various types of salt. The table salt in your kitchen, for example, is a marriage between the alkali metal sodium and the halogen chlorine.

Noble gases: Colorless, odorless and almost completely nonreactive, the inert, or noble gases round out the table in Group 18. Many chemists expect oganesson, one of the four newly named elements, to share these characteristics; however, because this element has a half-life measuring in the milliseconds, no one has been able to test it directly. Oganesson completes the seventh period of the periodic table, so if anyone manages to synthesize element 119 (and the race to do so is already underway), it will loop around to start row eight in the alkali metal column.

Because of the cyclical nature created by the periodicity that gives the table its name, some chemists prefer to visualize Mendeleev's table as a circle.

Additional resources:

Sours: https://www.livescience.com/28507-element-groups.html

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • State the periodic law and explain the organization of elements in the periodic table
  • Predict the general properties of elements based on their location within the periodic table
  • Identify metals, nonmetals, and metalloids by their properties and/or location on the periodic table

As early chemists worked to purify ores and discovered more elements, they realized that various elements could be grouped together by their similar chemical behaviors. One such grouping includes lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and potassium (K): These elements all are shiny, conduct heat and electricity well, and have similar chemical properties. A second grouping includes calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba), which also are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and have chemical properties in common. However, the specific properties of these two groupings are notably different from each other. For example: Li, Na, and K are much more reactive than are Ca, Sr, and Ba; Li, Na, and K form compounds with oxygen in a ratio of two of their atoms to one oxygen atom, whereas Ca, Sr, and Ba form compounds with one of their atoms to one oxygen atom. Fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I) also exhibit similar properties to each other, but these properties are drastically different from those of any of the elements above.

Dimitri Mendeleev in Russia (1869) and Lothar Meyer in Germany (1870) independently recognized that there was a periodic relationship among the properties of the elements known at that time. Both published tables with the elements arranged according to increasing atomic mass. But Mendeleev went one step further than Meyer: He used his table to predict the existence of elements that would have the properties similar to aluminum and silicon, but were yet unknown. The discoveries of gallium (1875) and germanium (1886) provided great support for Mendeleev’s work. Although Mendeleev and Meyer had a long dispute over priority, Mendeleev’s contributions to the development of the periodic table are now more widely recognized (Figure 1).

Figure A shows a photograph of Dimitri Mendeleev. Figure B shows the first periodic table developed by Mendeleev, which had eight groups and twelve periods. In the first group (—, R superscript plus sign 0) is the following information: H = 1, L i = 7, N a = 23, K = 39, (C u = 63), R b = 85, (A g = 108), C a = 183, (—),—, (A u = 199) —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. The second group (—, R 0) contains the following information: (not entry for period 1) B o = 9, 4, M g = 24, C a = 40, Z n = 65, S r = 87, C d = 112, B a = 187, —, —, H g = 200, —. Note the ach of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group three (—, R superscript one 0 superscript nine) contains the information: (no entry for period 1), B = 11, A l = 27, 8. — = 44, — = 68, ? Y t = 88, I n = 113, ? D I = 138, —, ? E r = 178, T l = 204, —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group four (RH superscript four, R0 superscript eight) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), C = 12, B i = 28, T i = 48, — = 72, Z r = 90, S n = 118, ? C o = 140, ? L a = 180, P b = 207, T h = 231. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group five (R H superscript two, R superscript two 0 superscript five) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), N = 14, P = 31, V = 51, A s = 75, N b = 94, S b = 122, —, —, T a = 182, B l = 208, —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group six (R H superscript two, R 0 superscript three) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), O = 16, S = 32, C r = 52, S o = 78, M o = 96, T o = 125, —, —, W = 184, —, U = 240. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group seven (R H , R superscript plus sing, 0 superscript 7) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), F = 19, C l = 35, 5, M n = 55, B r = 80, — = 100, J = 127, —, —, —, —, —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group 8 (—, R 0 superscript four) contains the following information: (no entry for periods 1, 2, 3), in period 4: F o = 56, C o = 59, N i = 59, C u = 63, no entry for period five, in period 6: R u = 104, R h = 104, P d = 106, A g = 108, no entries for periods 7, 8 , or 9, in period 10: O s = 195, I r = 197, P t = 198, A u = 199, no entries for periods 11 or 12.

Figure 1. (a) Dimitri Mendeleev is widely credited with creating (b) the first periodic table of the elements. (credit a: modification of work by Serge Lachinov; credit b: modification of work by “Den fjättrade ankan”/Wikimedia Commons)

By the twentieth century, it became apparent that the periodic relationship involved atomic numbers rather than atomic masses. The modern statement of this relationship, the periodic law, is as follows: the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. A modern periodic table arranges the elements in increasing order of their atomic numbers and groups atoms with similar properties in the same vertical column (Figure 2). Each box represents an element and contains its atomic number, symbol, average atomic mass, and (sometimes) name. The elements are arranged in seven horizontal rows, called periods or series, and 18 vertical columns, called groups. Groups are labeled at the top of each column. In the United States, the labels traditionally were numerals with capital letters. However, IUPAC recommends that the numbers 1 through 18 be used, and these labels are more common. For the table to fit on a single page, parts of two of the rows, a total of 14 columns, are usually written below the main body of the table.

The Periodic Table of Elements is shown. The 18 columns are labeled “Group” and the 7 rows are labeled “Period.” Below the table to the right is a box labeled “Color Code” with different colors for metals, metalloids, and nonmetals, as well as solids, liquids, and gases. To the left of this box is an enlarged picture of the upper-left most box on the table. The number 1 is in its upper-left hand corner and is labeled “Atomic number.” The letter “H” is in the middle in red indicating that it is a gas. It is labeled “Symbol.” Below that is the number 1.008 which is labeled “Atomic Mass.” Below that is the word hydrogen which is labeled “name.” The color of the box indicates that it is a nonmetal. Each element will be described in this order: atomic number; name; symbol; whether it is a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal; whether it is a solid, liquid, or gas; and atomic mass. Beginning at the top left of the table, or period 1, group 1, is a box containing “1; hydrogen; H; nonmetal; gas; and 1.008.” There is only one other element box in period 1, group 18, which contains “2; helium; H e; nonmetal; gas; and 4.003.” Period 2, group 1 contains “3; lithium; L i; metal; solid; and 6.94” Group 2 contains “4; beryllium; B e; metal; solid; and 9.012.” Groups 3 through 12 are skipped and group 13 contains “5; boron; B; metalloid; solid; 10.81.” Group 14 contains “6; carbon; C; nonmetal; solid; and 12.01.” Group 15 contains “7; nitrogen; N; nonmetal; gas; and 14.01.” Group 16 contains “8; oxygen; O; nonmetal; gas; and 16.00.” Group 17 contains “9; fluorine; F; nonmetal; gas; and 19.00.” Group 18 contains “10; neon; N e; nonmetal; gas; and 20.18.” Period 3, group 1 contains “11; sodium; N a; metal; solid; and 22.99.” Group 2 contains “12; magnesium; M g; metal; solid; and 24.31.” Groups 3 through 12 are skipped again in period 3 and group 13 contains “13; aluminum; A l; metal; solid; and 26.98.” Group 14 contains “14; silicon; S i; metalloid; solid; and 28.09.” Group 15 contains “15; phosphorous; P; nonmetal; solid; and 30.97.” Group 16 contains “16; sulfur; S; nonmetal; solid; and 32.06.” Group 17 contains “17; chlorine; C l; nonmetal; gas; and 35.45.” Group 18 contains “18; argon; A r; nonmetal; gas; and 39.95.” Period 4, group 1 contains “19; potassium; K; metal; solid; and 39.10.” Group 2 contains “20; calcium; C a; metal; solid; and 40.08.” Group 3 contains “21; scandium; S c; metal; solid; and 44.96.” Group 4 contains “22; titanium; T i; metal; solid; and 47.87.” Group 5 contains “23; vanadium; V; metal; solid; and 50.94.” Group 6 contains “24; chromium; C r; metal; solid; and 52.00.” Group 7 contains “25; manganese; M n; metal; solid; and 54.94.” Group 8 contains “26; iron; F e; metal; solid; and 55.85.” Group 9 contains “27; cobalt; C o; metal; solid; and 58.93.” Group 10 contains “28; nickel; N i; metal; solid; and 58.69.” Group 11 contains “29; copper; C u; metal; solid; and 63.55.” Group 12 contains “30; zinc; Z n; metal; solid; and 65.38.” Group 13 contains “31; gallium; G a; metal; solid; and 69.72.” Group 14 contains “32; germanium; G e; metalloid; solid; and 72.63.” Group 15 contains “33; arsenic; A s; metalloid; solid; and 74.92.” Group 16 contains “34; selenium; S e; nonmetal; solid; and 78.97.” Group 17 contains “35; bromine; B r; nonmetal; liquid; and 79.90.” Group 18 contains “36; krypton; K r; nonmetal; gas; and 83.80.” Period 5, group 1 contains “37; rubidium; R b; metal; solid; and 85.47.” Group 2 contains “38; strontium; S r; metal; solid; and 87.62.” Group 3 contains “39; yttrium; Y; metal; solid; and 88.91.” Group 4 contains “40; zirconium; Z r; metal; solid; and 91.22.” Group 5 contains “41; niobium; N b; metal; solid; and 92.91.” Group 6 contains “42; molybdenum; M o; metal; solid; and 95.95.” Group 7 contains “43; technetium; T c; metal; solid; and 97.” Group 8 contains “44; ruthenium; R u; metal; solid; and 101.1.” Group 9 contains “45; rhodium; R h; metal; solid; and 102.9.” Group 10 contains “46; palladium; P d; metal; solid; and 106.4.” Group 11 contains “47; silver; A g; metal; solid; and 107.9.” Group 12 contains “48; cadmium; C d; metal; solid; and 112.4.” Group 13 contains “49; indium; I n; metal; solid; and 114.8.” Group 14 contains “50; tin; S n; metal; solid; and 118.7.” Group 15 contains “51; antimony; S b; metalloid; solid; and 121.8.” Group 16 contains “52; tellurium; T e; metalloid; solid; and 127.6.” Group 17 contains “53; iodine; I; nonmetal; solid; and 126.9.” Group 18 contains “54; xenon; X e; nonmetal; gas; and 131.3.” Period 6, group 1 contains “55; cesium; C s; metal; solid; and 132.9.” Group 2 contains “56; barium; B a; metal; solid; and 137.3.” Group 3 breaks the pattern. The box has a large arrow pointing to a row of elements below the table with atomic numbers ranging from 57-71. In sequential order by atomic number, the first box in this row contains “57; lanthanum; L a; metal; solid; and 138.9.” To its right, the next is “58; cerium; C e; metal; solid; and 140.1.” Next is “59; praseodymium; P r; metal; solid; and 140.9.” Next is “60; neodymium; N d; metal; solid; and 144.2.” Next is “61; promethium; P m; metal; solid; and 145.” Next is “62; samarium; S m; metal; solid; and 150.4.” Next is “63; europium; E u; metal; solid; and 152.0.” Next is “64; gadolinium; G d; metal; solid; and 157.3.” Next is “65; terbium; T b; metal; solid; and 158.9.” Next is “66; dysprosium; D y; metal; solid; and 162.5.” Next is “67; holmium; H o; metal; solid; and 164.9.” Next is “68; erbium; E r; metal; solid; and 167.3.” Next is “69; thulium; T m; metal; solid; and 168.9.” Next is “70; ytterbium; Y b; metal; solid; and 173.1.” The last in this special row is “71; lutetium; L u; metal; solid; and 175.0.” Continuing in period 6, group 4 contains “72; hafnium; H f; metal; solid; and 178.5.” Group 5 contains “73; tantalum; T a; metal; solid; and 180.9.” Group 6 contains “74; tungsten; W; metal; solid; and 183.8.” Group 7 contains “75; rhenium; R e; metal; solid; and 186.2.” Group 8 contains “76; osmium; O s; metal; solid; and 190.2.” Group 9 contains “77; iridium; I r; metal; solid; and 192.2.” Group 10 contains “78; platinum; P t; metal; solid; and 195.1.” Group 11 contains “79; gold; A u; metal; solid; and 197.0.” Group 12 contains “80; mercury; H g; metal; liquid; and 200.6.” Group 13 contains “81; thallium; T l; metal; solid; and 204.4.” Group 14 contains “82; lead; P b; metal; solid; and 207.2.” Group 15 contains “83; bismuth; B i; metal; solid; and 209.0.” Group 16 contains “84; polonium; P o; metal; solid; and 209.” Group 17 contains “85; astatine; A t; metalloid; solid; and 210.” Group 18 contains “86; radon; R n; nonmetal; gas; and 222.” Period 7, group 1 contains “87; francium; F r; metal; solid; and 223.” Group 2 contains “88; radium; R a; metal; solid; and 226.” Group 3 breaks the pattern much like what occurs in period 6. A large arrow points from the box in period 7, group 3 to a special row containing the elements with atomic numbers ranging from 89-103, just below the row which contains atomic numbers 57-71. In sequential order by atomic number, the first box in this row contains “89; actinium; A c; metal; solid; and 227.” To its right, the next is “90; thorium; T h; metal; solid; and 232.0.” Next is “91; protactinium; P a; metal; solid; and 231.0.” Next is “92; uranium; U; metal; solid; and 238.0.” Next is “93; neptunium; N p; metal; solid; and N p.” Next is “94; plutonium; P u; metal; solid; and 244.” Next is “95; americium; A m; metal; solid; and 243.” Next is “96; curium; C m; metal; solid; and 247.” Next is “97; berkelium; B k; metal; solid; and 247.” Next is “98; californium; C f; metal; solid; and 251.” Next is “99; einsteinium; E s; metal; solid; and 252.” Next is “100; fermium; F m; metal; solid; and 257.” Next is “101; mendelevium; M d; metal; solid; and 258.” Next is “102; nobelium; N o; metal; solid; and 259.” The last in this special row is “103; lawrencium; L r; metal; solid; and 262.” Continuing in period 7, group 4 contains “104; rutherfordium; R f; metal; solid; and 267.” Group 5 contains “105; dubnium; D b; metal; solid; and 270.” Group 6 contains “106; seaborgium; S g; metal; solid; and 271.” Group 7 contains “107; bohrium; B h; metal; solid; and 270.” Group 8 contains “108; hassium; H s; metal; solid; and 277.” Group 9 contains “109; meitnerium; M t; not indicated; solid; and 276.” Group 10 contains “110; darmstadtium; D s; not indicated; solid; and 281.” Group 11 contains “111; roentgenium; R g; not indicated; solid; and 282.” Group 12 contains “112; copernicium; C n; metal; liquid; and 285.” Group 13 contains “113; ununtrium; U u t; not indicated; solid; and 285.” Group 14 contains “114; flerovium; F l; not indicated; solid; and 289.” Group 15 contains “115; ununpentium; U u p; not indicated; solid; and 288.” Group 16 contains “116; livermorium; L v; not indicated; solid; and 293.” Group 17 contains “117; ununseptium; U u s; not indicated; solid; and 294.” Group 18 contains “118; ununoctium; U u o; not indicated; solid; and 294.”

Figure 2. Elements in the periodic table are organized according to their properties.

Many elements differ dramatically in their chemical and physical properties, but some elements are similar in their behaviors. For example, many elements appear shiny, are malleable (able to be deformed without breaking) and ductile (can be drawn into wires), and conduct heat and electricity well. Other elements are not shiny, malleable, or ductile, and are poor conductors of heat and electricity. We can sort the elements into large classes with common properties: metals (elements that are shiny, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity—shaded yellow); nonmetals (elements that appear dull, poor conductors of heat and electricity—shaded green); and metalloids (elements that conduct heat and electricity moderately well, and possess some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals—shaded purple).

The elements can also be classified into the main-group elements (or representative elements) in the columns labeled 1, 2, and 13–18; the transition metals in the columns labeled 3–12; and inner transition metals in the two rows at the bottom of the table (the top-row elements are called lanthanides and the bottom-row elements are actinides; Figure 3). The elements can be subdivided further by more specific properties, such as the composition of the compounds they form. For example, the elements in group 1 (the first column) form compounds that consist of one atom of the element and one atom of hydrogen. These elements (except hydrogen) are known as alkali metals, and they all have similar chemical properties. The elements in group 2 (the second column) form compounds consisting of one atom of the element and two atoms of hydrogen: These are called alkaline earth metals, with similar properties among members of that group. Other groups with specific names are the pnictogens (group 15), chalcogens (group 16), halogens (group 17), and the noble gases (group 18, also known as inert gases). The groups can also be referred to by the first element of the group: For example, the chalcogens can be called the oxygen group or oxygen family. Hydrogen is a unique, nonmetallic element with properties similar to both group 1A and group 7A elements. For that reason, hydrogen may be shown at the top of both groups, or by itself.

This diagram combines the groups and periods of the periodic table based on their similar properties. Group 1 contains the alkali metals, group 2 contains the earth alkaline metals, group 15 contains the pnictogens, group 16 contains the chalcogens, group 17 contains the halogens and group 18 contains the noble gases. The main group elements consist of groups 1, 2, and 12 through 18. Therefore, most of the transition metals, which are contained in groups 3 through 11, are not main group elements. The lanthanides and actinides are called out at the bottom of the periodic table.

Figure 3. The periodic table organizes elements with similar properties into groups.

Click on this link to the Royal Society of Chemistry for an interactive periodic table, which you can use to explore the properties of the elements (includes podcasts and videos of each element). You may also want to try this one from PeriodicTable.com that shows photos of all the elements.

Example 1: Naming Groups of Elements

Atoms of each of the following elements are essential for life. Give the group name for the following elements:

  1. chlorine
  2. calcium
  3. sodium
  4. sulfur
Show Answer
The family names are as follows:
  1. halogen
  2. alkaline earth metal
  3. alkali metal
  4. chalcogen

Check Your Learning

Give the group name for each of the following elements:

  1. krypton
  2. selenium
  3. barium
  4. lithium
Show Answer
  1. noble gas
  2. chalcogen
  3. alkaline earth metal
  4. alkali metal

In studying the periodic table, you might have noticed something about the atomic masses of some of the elements. Element 43 (technetium), element 61 (promethium), and most of the elements with atomic number 84 (polonium) and higher have their atomic mass given in square brackets. This is done for elements that consist entirely of unstable, radioactive isotopes (you will learn more about radioactivity in the nuclear chemistry chapter). An average atomic weight cannot be determined for these elements because their radioisotopes may vary significantly in relative abundance, depending on the source, or may not even exist in nature. The number in square brackets is the atomic mass number (and approximate atomic mass) of the most stable isotope of that element.

Key Concepts and Summary

The discovery of the periodic recurrence of similar properties among the elements led to the formulation of the periodic table, in which the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number in rows known as periods and columns known as groups. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have similar chemical properties. Elements can be classified as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals, or as a main-group elements, transition metals, and inner transition metals. Groups are numbered 1–18 from left to right. The elements in group 1 are known as the alkali metals; those in group 2 are the alkaline earth metals; those in 15 are the pnictogens; those in 16 are the chalcogens; those in 17 are the halogens; and those in 18 are the noble gases.

Exercises

Metal or Nonmetal?

  1. Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a main-group (representative) element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:
    1. uranium
    2. bromine
    3. strontium
    4. neon
    5. gold
    6. americium
    7. rhodium
    8. sulfur
    9. carbon
    10. potassium
  2. Using the periodic table, classify each of the following elements as a metal or a nonmetal, and then further classify each as a main-group (representative) element, transition metal, or inner transition metal:
    1. cobalt
    2. europium
    3. iodine
    4. indium
    5. lithium
    6. oxygen
    7. cadmium
    8. terbium
    9. rhenium
Show Answer

1. (a) metal, inner transition metal; (b) nonmetal, representative element; (c) metal, representative element; (d) nonmetal, representative element; (e) metal, transition metal; (f) metal, inner transition metal; (g) metal, transition metal; (h) nonmetal, representative element; (i) nonmetal, representative element; (j) metal, representative element

Identifying Elements

  1. Using the periodic table, identify the lightest member of each of the following groups:
    1. noble gases
    2. alkaline earth metals
    3. alkali metals
    4. chalcogens
  2. Using the periodic table, identify the heaviest member of each of the following groups:
    1. alkali metals
    2. chalcogens
    3. noble gases
    4. alkaline earth metals
  3. Use the periodic table to give the name and symbol for each of the following elements:
    1. the noble gas in the same period as germanium
    2. the alkaline earth metal in the same period as selenium
    3. the halogen in the same period as lithium
    4. the chalcogen in the same period as cadmium
  4. Use the periodic table to give the name and symbol for each of the following elements:
    1. the halogen in the same period as the alkali metal with 11 protons
    2. the alkaline earth metal in the same period with the neutral noble gas with 18 electrons
    3. the noble gas in the same row as an isotope with 30 neutrons and 25 protons
    4. the noble gas in the same period as gold
  5. Write a symbol for each of the following neutral isotopes. Include the atomic number and mass number for each.
    1. the alkali metal with 11 protons and a mass number of 23
    2. the noble gas element with and 75 neutrons in its nucleus and 54 electrons in the neutral atom
    3. the isotope with 33 protons and 40 neutrons in its nucleus
    4. the alkaline earth metal with 88 electrons and 138 neutrons
  6. Write a symbol for each of the following neutral isotopes. Include the atomic number and mass number for each.
    1. the chalcogen with a mass number of 125
    2. the halogen whose longest-lived isotope is radioactive
    3. the noble gas, used in lighting, with 10 electrons and 10 neutrons
    4. the lightest alkali metal with three neutrons
Show Selected Answers

1. (a) He; (b) Be; (c) Li; (d) O

3. (a) krypton, Kr; (b) calcium, Ca; (c) fluorine, F; (d) tellurium, Te

5. (a) [latex]{}_{11}^{23}\text{Na}[/latex] ; (b) [latex]{}_{54}^{129}\text{Xe}[/latex] ; (c) [latex]{}_{33}^{73}\text{As}[/latex] ; (d) [latex]{}_{88}^{226}\text{Ra}[/latex]

Glossary

actinide: inner transition metal in the bottom of the bottom two rows of the periodic table

alkali metal: element in group 1

alkaline earth metal: element in group 2

chalcogen: element in group 16

group: vertical column of the periodic table

halogen: element in group 17

inert gas: (also, noble gas) element in group 18

inner transition metal: (also, lanthanide or actinide) element in the bottom two rows; if in the first row, also called lanthanide, of if in the second row, also called actinide

lanthanide: inner transition metal in the top of the bottom two rows of the periodic table

main-group element: (also, representative element) element in columns 1, 2, and 12–18

metal: element that is shiny, malleable, good conductor of heat and electricity

metalloid: element that conducts heat and electricity moderately well, and possesses some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals

noble gas: (also, inert gas) element in group 18

nonmetal: element that appears dull, poor conductor of heat and electricity

period: (also, series) horizontal row of the period table

periodic law: properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers.

periodic table: table of the elements that places elements with similar chemical properties close together

pnictogen: element in group 15

representative element: (also, main-group element) element in columns 1, 2, and 12–18

series: (also, period) horizontal row of the period table

transition metal: element in columns 3–11

Sours: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sanjacinto-atdcoursereview-genchemistry1-1/chapter/the-periodic-table/
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In the modern periodic table, the elements are listed in order of increasing atomic number.  The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.  The number of protons define the identity of an element (i.e., an element with 6 protons is a carbon atom, no matter how many neutrons may be present).  The number of protons determines how many electrons surround the nucleus, and it is the arrangement of these electrons that determines most of the chemical behavior of an element.

In a periodic table arranged in order of increasing atomic number, elements having similar chemical properties naturally line up in the same column (group).  For instance, all of the elements in Group 1A are relatively soft metals, react violently with water, and form 1+ charges; all of the elements in Group 8A are unreactive, monatomic gases at room temperature, etc.  In other words, there is a periodic repetition of the properties of the chemical elements with increasing mass.

In the original periodic table published by Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869, the elements were arranged according to increasing atomic mass— at that time, the nucleus had not yet been discovered, and there was no understanding at all of the interior structure of the atom, so atomic mass was the only guide to use.  Once the structure of the nucleus was understood, it became clear that it was the atomic number that governed the properties of the elements.

 

Sours: https://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/periodic/structure_numbers.htm
What Are Periods \u0026 Groups In The Periodic Table? - Properties of Matter - Chemistry - FuseSchool

Elements


 

Elements are arranged by reactivity in the periodic table.  Elements with similar reactivity are put into the same column or group.  Some of these groups have special names.  The elements in group IA are called the alkali metals. The elements in group IIA are called the alkaline earth metals.  The elements in group VIIA are called the halogens and the elements in group VIIIA are called the noble gases or the inert gases.  The metals in group IB (copper, silver and gold) are sometimes called the coinage metals.  The columns with B (IB through VIIIB) are called the transition elements.  The columns with A (IA through VIIIA) are called the main group elements

 

 

 

tillery+f10-19.jpg

 

The elements can also be divided into two main groups, the metals and the non-metals.  Metals are typically have a metallic sheen (shiny) are malleable (bendable) and conduct electricity.  Nonmetals typically do not show these properties.  There are some elements that show some, but not all, of the metallic properties.  These elements are called metalloids and are labeled here are semi-conductors.

 

Electrons are the “glue” that hold atoms together in compounds.  It is the outer shell electrons that form these bonds between atoms.  The first two quantum numbers n  (the shell) and l (the subshell) are both important in understanding bonding.  In this class we focus on the shell.  The shells correspond to the orbits of the Bohr model.  (See lecture 10.3) 

 

The first shell is the smallest so it can only hold a maximum of 2 electrons.  The second shell can only hold a maximum of 8 electrons.  The third shell can only hold a maximum of 18 electrons but is particularly stable at 8 electrons. 

 

Because it is the outer shells that react, we are most interested in the outer shell electrons.  We can represent the number of electrons in the outer shell with dots.  The outer shell are given the name valence electrons.  Officially, the valence electrons are the electrons in the outer shell of the uncharged atom.  Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell and so can represent it as a “Cl” with seven dots around it.

 becomes .  Notice how 2 electrons in the first shell and the 8 electrons in the second are inner shell electrons and are not written with dots.  Here is a chart of the main group elements and their Lewis dot symbols.

tillery+f10-18.jpg

 

Notice that for the main group elements, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number. 

Sours: http://web.fscj.edu/milczanowski/psc/lect/ch9/slide3.htm

Group number element

Group (periodic table)

Column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements

In the periodic tableof the elements, each numbered column is a group.

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family[1]) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements. There are 18 numbered groups in the periodic table; the f-block columns (between groups 2 and 3) are not numbered. The elements in a group have similar physical or chemical characteristics of the outermost electron shells of their atoms (i.e., the same core charge), because most chemical properties are dominated by the orbital location of the outermost electron.

There are three systems of group numbering for the groups; the same number may be assigned to different groups depending on the system being used. The modern numbering system of "group 1" to "group 18" has been recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) since about 1990. It replaces two older incompatible naming schemes, used by the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS, more popular in the US), and by IUPAC before 1990 (more popular in Europe). The system of eighteen groups is generally accepted by the chemistry community, but some dissent exists about membership of several elements. Disagreements mostly involve elements number 1 and 2 (hydrogen and helium), as well as inner transition metals.

Groups may also be identified using their topmost element, or have a specific name. For example, group 16 is also described as the "oxygen group" and as the "chalcogens". An exception is the "iron group", which usually refers to "group 8", but in chemistry may also mean iron, cobalt, and nickel, or some other set of elements with similar chemical properties. In astrophysics and nuclear physics, it usually refers to iron, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and manganese.

Group names[edit]

In history, several sets of group names have been used:[2][3]

a Group 1 is composed of hydrogen (H) and the alkali metals. Elements of the group have one s-electron in the outer electron shell. Hydrogen is not considered to be an alkali metal as it is not a metal, though it is more analogous to them than any other group. This makes the group somewhat exceptional.
n/a Do not have a group number
b Group 18, the noble gases, were not discovered at the time of Mendeleev's original table. Later (1902), Mendeleev accepted the evidence for their existence, and they could be placed in a new "group 0", consistently and without breaking the periodic table principle.
r Group name as recommended by IUPAC.

Some other names have been proposed and used without gaining wide acceptance: "volatile metals" for group 12;[6] "icosagens" for group 13;[7] "crystallogens",[4] "adamantogens",[8] and "merylides"[citation needed] for group 14; and "aerogens" for group 18.[5]

CAS and old IUPAC numbering (A/B)[edit]

Two earlier group number systems exist: CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) and old IUPAC. Both use numerals (Arabic or Roman) and letters A and B. Both systems agree on the numbers. The numbers indicate approximately the highest oxidation number of the elements in that group, and so indicate similar chemistry with other elements with the same numeral. The number proceeds in a linearly increasing fashion for the most part, once on the left of the table, and once on the right (see List of oxidation states of the elements), with some irregularities in the transition metals. However, the two systems use the letters differently. For example, potassium (K) has one valence electron. Therefore, it is located in group 1. Calcium (Ca) is in group 2, for it contains two valence electrons.

In the old IUPAC system the letters A and B were designated to the left (A) and right (B) part of the table, while in the CAS system the letters A and B are designated to main group elements (A) and transition elements (B). The old IUPAC system was frequently used in Europe, while the CAS is most common in America. The new IUPAC scheme was developed to replace both systems as they confusingly used the same names to mean different things. The new system simply numbers the groups increasingly from left to right on the standard periodic table. The IUPAC proposal was first circulated in 1985 for public comments,[2] and was later included as part of the 1990 edition of the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"The Periodic Table Terms". www.shmoop.com. Retrieved 2018-09-15.
  2. ^ abFluck, E. (1988). "New Notations in the Periodic Table"(PDF). Pure Appl. Chem.IUPAC. 60 (3): 431–436. doi:10.1351/pac198860030431. S2CID 96704008. Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  3. ^IUPAC (2005). "Nomenclature of inorganic chemistry"(PDF).
  4. ^ abcLiu, Ning; Lu, Na; Su, Yan; Wang, Pu; Quan, Xie (2019). "Fabrication of g-C3N4/Ti3C2 composite and its visible-light photocatalytic capability for ciprofloxacin degradation". Separation and Purification Technology. 211: 782–789. doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2018.10.027. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
  5. ^ abcdRich, Ronald (2007). Inorganic Reactions in Water. Springer. pp. 307, 327, 363, 475. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-73962-3. ISBN .
  6. ^https://glosbe.com/en/en/volatile%20metal
  7. ^Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 227. ISBN .
  8. ^W. B. Jensen, The Periodic Law and Table
  9. ^Leigh, G. J. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: Recommendations 1990. Blackwell Science, 1990. ISBN 0-632-02494-1.

Further reading[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_(periodic_table)
What Are Periods \u0026 Groups In The Periodic Table? - Properties of Matter - Chemistry - FuseSchool

2.6: Introduction to the Periodic Table

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Learning Objectives

  • To become familiar with the organization of the periodic table.

Rutherford’s nuclear model of the atom helped explain why atoms of different elements exhibit different chemical behavior. The identity of an element is defined by its atomic number (Z), the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of the element. The atomic number is therefore different for each element. The known elements are arranged in order of increasing Z in the periodic table (Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)). The rationale for the peculiar format of the periodic table is explained later. Each element is assigned a unique one-, two-, or three-letter symbol. The names of the elements are listed in the periodic table, along with their symbols, atomic numbers, and atomic masses. The chemistry of each element is determined by its number of protons and electrons. In a neutral atom, the number of electrons equals the number of protons.

The elements are arranged in a periodic table, which is probably the single most important learning aid in chemistry. It summarizes huge amounts of information about the elements in a way that facilitates the prediction of many of their properties and chemical reactions. The elements are arranged in seven horizontal rows, in order of increasing atomic number from left to right and top to bottom. The rows are called periods, and they are numbered from 1 to 7. The elements are stacked in such a way that elements with similar chemical properties form vertical columns, called groups, numbered from 1 to 18 (older periodic tables use a system based on roman numerals). Groups 1, 2, and 13–18 are the main group elements, listed as A in older tables. Groups 3–12 are in the middle of the periodic table and are the transition elements, listed as B in older tables. The two rows of 14 elements at the bottom of the periodic table are the lanthanides and the actinides, whose positions in the periodic table are indicated in group 3.

Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals

The heavy orange zigzag line running diagonally from the upper left to the lower right through groups 13–16 in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) divides the elements into metals (in blue, below and to the left of the line) and nonmetals (in bronze, above and to the right of the line). Gold-colored lements that lie along the diagonal line exhibit properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals; they are called semimetals.

The distinction between metals and nonmetals is one of the most fundamental in chemistry. Metals—such as copper or gold—are good conductors of electricity and heat; they can be pulled into wires because they are ductile; they can be hammered or pressed into thin sheets or foils because they are malleable; and most have a shiny appearance, so they are lustrous. The vast majority of the known elements are metals. Of the metals, only mercury is a liquid at room temperature and pressure; all the rest are solids.

Nonmetals, in contrast, are generally poor conductors of heat and electricity and are not lustrous. Nonmetals can be gases (such as chlorine), liquids (such as bromine), or solids (such as iodine) at room temperature and pressure. Most solid nonmetals are brittle, so they break into small pieces when hit with a hammer or pulled into a wire. As expected, semimetals exhibit properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals.

Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

Based on its position in the periodic table, do you expect selenium to be a metal, a nonmetal, or a semimetal?

Given: element

Asked for: classification

Strategy:

Find selenium in the periodic table shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) and then classify the element according to its location.

Solution:

The atomic number of selenium is 34, which places it in period 4 and group 16. In Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\), selenium lies above and to the right of the diagonal line marking the boundary between metals and nonmetals, so it should be a nonmetal. Note, however, that because selenium is close to the metal-nonmetal dividing line, it would not be surprising if selenium were similar to a semimetal in some of its properties.

Exercise \(\PageIndex{1}\)

Based on its location in the periodic table, do you expect indium to be a nonmetal, a metal, or a semimetal?

Answer: metal

Descriptive Names

As previously noted, the periodic table is arranged so that elements with similar chemical behaviors are in the same group. Chemists often make general statements about the properties of the elements in a group using descriptive names with historical origins. For example, the elements of Group 1 are known as the alkali metals, Group 2 are the alkaline earth metals, Group 17 are the halogens, and Group 18 are the noble gases.

Group 1: The Alkali Metals

The alkali metals are lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Hydrogen is unique in that it is generally placed in Group 1, but it is not a metal.

The compounds of the alkali metals are common in nature and daily life. One example is table salt (sodium chloride); lithium compounds are used in greases, in batteries, and as drugs to treat patients who exhibit manic-depressive, or bipolar, behavior. Although lithium, rubidium, and cesium are relatively rare in nature, and francium is so unstable and highly radioactive that it exists in only trace amounts, sodium and potassium are the seventh and eighth most abundant elements in Earth’s crust, respectively.

Group 2: The Alkaline Earth Metals

The alkaline earth metals are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. Beryllium, strontium, and barium are rare, and radium is unstable and highly radioactive. In contrast, calcium and magnesium are the fifth and sixth most abundant elements on Earth, respectively; they are found in huge deposits of limestone and other minerals.

Group 17: The Halogens

The halogens are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. The name halogen is derived from the Greek words for “salt forming,” which reflects that all the halogens react readily with metals to form compounds, such as sodium chloride and calcium chloride (used in some areas as road salt).

Compounds that contain the fluoride ion are added to toothpaste and the water supply to prevent dental cavities. Fluorine is also found in Teflon coatings on kitchen utensils. Although chlorofluorocarbon propellants and refrigerants are believed to lead to the depletion of Earth’s ozone layer and contain both fluorine and chlorine, the latter is responsible for the adverse effect on the ozone layer. Bromine and iodine are less abundant than chlorine, and astatine is so radioactive that it exists in only negligible amounts in nature.

Group 18: The Noble Gases

The noble gases are helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Because the noble gases are composed of only single atoms, they are called monatomic. At room temperature and pressure, they are unreactive gases. Because of their lack of reactivity, for many years they were called inert gases or rare gases. However, the first chemical compounds containing the noble gases were prepared in 1962. Although the noble gases are relatively minor constituents of the atmosphere, natural gas contains substantial amounts of helium. Because of its low reactivity, argon is often used as an unreactive (inert) atmosphere for welding and in light bulbs. The red light emitted by neon in a gas discharge tube is used in neon lights.

Note

The noble gases are unreactive at room temperature and pressure.

Summary

  • The periodic table is used as a predictive tool.

The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Elements that exhibit similar chemistry appear in vertical columns called groups (numbered 1–18 from left to right); the seven horizontal rows are called periods. Some of the groups have widely-used common names, including the alkali metals (Group 1) and the alkaline earth metals (Group 2) on the far left, and the halogens (Group 17) and the noble gases (Group 18) on the far right. The elements can be broadly divided into metals, nonmetals, and semimetals. Semimetals exhibit properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals. Metals are located on the left of the periodic table, and nonmetals are located on the upper right. They are separated by a diagonal band of semimetals. Metals are lustrous, good conductors of electricity, and readily shaped (they are ductile and malleable), whereas solid nonmetals are generally brittle and poor electrical conductors. Other important groupings of elements in the periodic table are the main group elements, the transition metals, the lanthanides, and the actinides.

Sours: https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/General_Chemistry/Map%3A_General_Chemistry_(Petrucci_et_al.)/02%3A_Atoms_and_The_Atomic_Theory/2.6%3A_Introduction_to_the_Periodic_Table

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